Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by joint inflammation and swelling, rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) production, and bone and cartilage destruction. In the present study the hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract of Quisqualis indica was administered orally at the dosage levels of 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity was test using acute inflammatory models like Formaldehyde induced arthritis and chronic models like Freund’s complete adjuvant arthritis. Oral administration of the extract at the doses 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. exhibited dose dependent and significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute (formaldehyde induced arthritis, p< 0.0001) and chronic (freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis, p<0.0001). The pharmacological screening included evaluation of anti-arthritic and immunomodulatory activity of hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract of Quisqualis indica at the dose of 100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg in rats with CFA-induced arthritis and formaldehyde induced arthritis. In injected (right) paw, low dose and high dose hydroalcoholic extract exhibited 36.29 %,
44.28 % inhibition and low dose, high dose methanolic extract exhibited 37.38 %, 46.09 % inhibition respectively against CFA induced paw edema on 21st day as compared to indomethacin (49.01 %). Administration of Quisqualis Indica was found to increase phagocytic activity by stimulation of macrophages, total WBC and differential leukocytes count. So anti inflammatory activity of Hydroalcoholic and methanolic extract of Quisqualis indica can be attributed to bradykinin and PG synthesis inhibition property of polyphenols. Hence, present investigation established some pharmacological evidences to support the folklore claim that Quisqualis indica L. is use as anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic agent and immunomodulatory activity.